This is a linkpost for Shelly Kagan's Ethics and the Future readings
Ord, The Precipice, Appendix B (6 pages) - Discusses how different views on population ethics could yield different conclusions about the importance of existential threats. Describes how preventing existential threats is a priority under a variety of ethical frameworks.
Greaves, Population axiology - A survey paper on different theories in population ethics.
The problem with person-affecting views - a short EA forum post describing an unintuitive conclusion of person-affecting views in population ethics.
Kagan, “Singer on Killing Animals”, p. 141 - p. 145 (5 pages) - Discusses population ethics in the context of animal welfare. Introduces several concepts relevant to population ethics.
Parfit, Reasons and Persons, Chapters 16-18, and Appendix G (70 pages) - Describes several problems that arise when trying to imagine an ideal future population. Also presents interesting thought experiments about identity, ethical frameworks, and comparisons between populations of different sizes.
Boonin, “How to Solve the Non-Identity Problem” (30 pages) - Explores the non-identity problem: the fact that our actions will affect not only the well-being of future people but also the identities of those future people.
Harman, “Can We Harm and Benefit in Creating?” (25 pages) - Proposes a solution to the non-identity problem by relying on reasons against harm.
McMahan, “Climate Change, War, and the Non-Identity Problem” (27 pages) - Discusses how the non-identity problem can affect the way we understand the ethics of climate change.
On The Overwhelming Importance Of Shaping The Far Future, Chapter 4 (23 pages) - Discusses different types of person-affecting views and how they might influence the ethics of longtermism.